Chinese Exclusion Act Gentlemen`s Agreement

The treaty: An informal agreement between the Japanese and U.S. governments, which limited Japanese immigration to the United States to non-workers, workers who had already settled in the United States, and their family members, President Roosevelt had three goals to resolve the situation: to show Japan that California`s policy did not reflect the ideals of the entire country, To force San Francisco to repeal the policy of segregation and find a solution to the problem of Japanese immigration. Victor Metcalf, Minister of Trade and Labour, was sent to investigate the problem and force the repeal of the policy. He did not succeed because local officials wanted Japan to be excluded. Roosevelt tried to put pressure on the school, but she would not give in. On February 15, 1907, the parties reached a compromise. If Roosevelt could guarantee the suspension of Japanese immigration, the school administration would allow Japanese-American students to attend public schools. The Japanese government did not want to harm its national pride or suffer humiliation, as the Qing government in China did in 1882 by the Chinase Exclusion Act. The Japanese government agreed to no longer grant passports to workers attempting to enter the United States unless they came to occupy a formerly acquired house to join a relative; spouse; or to take active control of a previously acquired agricultural holding. [10] The rise of Japanese immigration, in part to replace excluded Chinese farm workers, has met with concerted opposition in California.

In order to appease Californians and avoid an open break with Japan`s emerging world power, President Theodore Roosevelt negotiated this diplomatic agreement, under which the Japanese government took responsibility for severely limiting Japanese immigration, especially of workers, so that Japanese-American children could continue to attend integrated schools on the West Coast. Family migration could continue, however, as Japanese-American men with sufficient savings could bring wives through arranged marriages („picture brides”), their parents and minor children. As a result, the Japan-U.S. population has been more balanced than other Asian-American communities and has continued to grow through natural growth, which has increased pressure to end its immigration and further reduce the rights of the resident population. The gentlemen`s agreement forced the cancellation of the education commission`s order. In exchange, the Japanese government agreed not to issue new passports for Japanese nationals wishing to work in the United States. However, parents, children, and wives of Japanese workers already in the United States have always been able to immigrate to the United States. Critics of the deal also pointed to the loophole that Japanese workers could still immigrate freely to the territory of Hawaii and, subsequently, the „bildbraut” industry developed, in which single Japanese male workers in the United States could choose a Japanese bride from the former country solely on the basis of photos sent. The provisions of the gentlemen`s agreement allowed Japanese immigrant communities to develop complex family networks in a way that previous Chinese communities never achieved solely for men.

In 1900, San Francisco had 90 and 545 Japanese companies in 1900, despite the negative financial consequences of the 1906 earthquake. According to the 1900 U.S. Census, 72,257 citizens of Japanese origin lived in the United States (42 percent in California); In 1920, there were 138,834 (70 percent in California). The persistence of anti-immigration sentiment led to the Immigration Act of 1924 which, until the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, effectively halted all other Japanese migration to the United States.